POLISH NATIONAL PROJECT
NEW MATERIALS AND TECHNOLOGIES FOR BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING
co-ordinator: Professor Jan Chłopek
The aim of the project is elaboration and manufacture of
new biomaterials designed for the treatment of human tissues and
organs. The project tasks will be realized according to the newest
research trends, in three thematic groups, within which the following
problems are specified:
I. Metallic biomaterials with surface layers
1. Improvement of biological and tribological properties of metallic
implants by modification their microstructure and the surface.
2. Shaping a structure of the shape memory alloys and the hyperelastic alloys intended for medical applications.
3. Preparation of Ti – based new metallic biomaterials with the
appropriated modulus of elasticity covered with ceramic,
ceramic-polymer, passive-carbon, oxides and nitrides layers, having
improved corrosion resistance and biological activity.
II. Resorbable polymers and composites.
1. Elaboration of new methods of biodegradable polymers’ synthesis using non-toxic initiators.
2. Modeling of carbon and resorbable polymers scaffolds’ microstructure for tissue regeneration.
3. Shaping a structure and useful properties of constructional implants
made of resorbable polymers modified with the fibres and particles as
biomaterials for the controlled osseointegration
III. Bioactive phosphate-siliceous materials
1. Calcium phosphates – based multifunctional ceramics
2. Manufacture and shaping of the properties of new bioglass and glass-ceramics as highly – bioactive materials.
3. Bioactive ceramic layers.
4. Ceramic bone cements.
Specified materials can be used for: hip endoprothesis,
implants to osseointegration, corrective medical devices, bone
stabilizers, stents for blood vessels - artery and aorta, oesophagus,
bronchi, trachea and urinary system, bone and tissue substitutes,
scaffolds for tissue regeneration.
Main tasks of the project
1. Elaboration of the medical technology for the production of new biomaterials
2. Determination of biomedical requirements and physico-chemical characteristics of biomaterials.
3. Elaboration of the test methods and standards for biomaterials that
are compatible with European medical regulations.
4. Determination of material and constructional requirements for the implants.
5. Publication of the obtained results of the project in international magazines.
6. Presentation of the obtained results at foreign and domestic conferences
Determination of tribological characteristics of materials for hip endoprothesis
prof. J. R. Dąbrowski, Białystok Technical University,
Capabilities of powder metallurgy methods will be
employed in this project, in order to design and produce materials of
planned applied characteristics. The main scientific goals are:
- to develop a composite material based on the implant alloys (cobalt
or titanium) with solid lubricant additions; the material should have
good tribological properties – minimal frictional resistance and
- to develop modifications of tribological properties of friction faces
by the method of surface engineering (e.g. ion implantation, thin
- to develop a conception, mathematical model as well as experimental
verification of self-lubricating friction pair of hip joint
endoprosthesis; the usage of natural and artificial synovial liquid as
a lubricant will be provided; artificial synovial liquids will be
prepared on a base of chosen cholesterol esters.
The strength of the project is the fact, that technology of produce
sintered materials, among them – composites based of Co-Cr-Mo
alloy, were worked out in advance. The main functional aspect of the
project will be the development of a new generation of biomaterials and
constructional-technological solution of joint endoprosthesis friction
pair. The realization of and a preliminary biological evaluation of hip
joint endoprosthesis prototype is anticipated, using achieved materials
Plasma modification of surface layers biocompatibility of implants based on Ti-alloys, intended for heart-vascular system
Prof. A. Sysa, Polish Mother’s Memorial Hospital, Research Institute
The beginning of therapy of blood circulation system
using implants (artificial heart valves, vessel stents) mainly made of
titanium alloys created many problems because of their unbiological
character. They concern among others surface which has direct contact
with tissue. One of the them is the problem with upkeep of mechanical
properties on elements which have very complicated shapes. Another very
important task is biocompatibility of implant surface with blood and
The aim of the investigation task is assessment of modified by
nanocrystalline diamond layer (NCD) implant surfaces including analysis
of physical properties and determination of bioactivity on surface of
these implants (mechanical valve, vessel stents).
In the project the elaboration of technology of deposition of
nanocrystalline diamond on implants with complex geometry and
undergoing a deformation after deposition of NCD layer will be
investigated.For deposition the RF PCVD and MW-RF PCVD method will be
Later the analysis of physicochemical properties including
microcorrosion phenomenon and analysis of surface using scanning
microscope, atom force microscope and analysis of adhesion of NCD layer
under straining using scratch tests will be done. The heart valves will
be put under simulate work and then the assessment of their surfaces
will be done. In the investigations of bioactivity the elements of
implants with NCD layer will be assessed by the allergy tests and
adhesion of blood platelets.
It is assumed that as the result of investigations carried out the
advantageous mechanical and biocompatibility features of NCD layers
deposited on heart-vessel will be established
• Technical University of Łódź
• Warsaw University of Technology
biomaterials with modified structure and specific mechanical features
(modulus of elasticity, shape-memory and hyperplasticity) with surface
layers of good mechanical and corrosion properties and biotolerance
intended for making new generation implants for reconstruction and
prof. J. Marciniak, Silesian University of Technology in Gliwice, Center of Biomedical Engineering
The aim of the task is to work out the technology of
making new generation metallic biomaterials with surface layers
intended for surgical implants for reconstruction and elastic
osteosynthesis. Implants of perspective importance were selected for
endoscopic operations (stents for treatment of narrowing of blood
vessels - artery and aorta, oesophagus, bronchi, trachea and urinary
system made of FeCrNiMo alloys nad NiTi shape memory and hyperelastic
alloys with passive - carbon layers) and nails for intramedullar
osteosynthesis made of FeCrNiMo and TiAlNb alloys with passive - carbon
layers as well as fixators used for spine illness and injury made of
TiAlNb or TiNbTaZr alloys of specific modulus of elasticity, with
surface layers modified with elements such as O, C and N.
The project assumes stress and strain analyses for selected forms and
geomeric features of implants realized with the use of computational
mechanics methods (due) to describe optimal mechanical properties of a
metallic biomaterial and surface layers. The selection of optimal
structures and mechanical properties of the metallic biomaterial as
well as physical and chemical properties of surface layers for
specified functional forms of implants, their conditions of use and
applied operation technique is a key problem (both scientific and
application) in the suggested task.
Tests of biomaterials with surface layers as well as finished products
(which will be made by selected manufacturers) will be carried out in
"in vitro" conditions adequate to clinical ones. Furthermore,
sterilization techniques of implants and criteria of quality assessment
of applied biomaterials, surface layers and finished products taking UE
directives into consideration will be worked out. Additionally,
recommendations for the operation technique for these products will be
also carried out.
titanium-based biomaterials produced by surface engineering methods
with the possibility of controlling their biocompatibility
prof. T. Wierzchoń, Warsaw University of Technology
Titanium and its alloys belong to the most prospective metallic biomaterials. Their distinguishing features are:
- the highest resistance to biological corrosion,
- relatively good mechanical properties accompanied by a low density -
twice as low as that of austenitic steel and that of Co-Cr-Mo alloys.
- the smallest Young modulus, which is particularly important in the fabrication of human bone implants.
Just as is the case with the metallic biomaterials mentioned above, the
use of titanium and its alloys is however limited by their low
frictional wear resistance and by the possibility of the release of
their constituents into the surrounding biological environment. The
investigations performed thus far indicate that the possibility of
improving the biotolerance of and mechanical properties of biomaterials
by modifying their chemical and phase composition has been exhausted.
The other difficulties reported in the literature lie in achieving a
good bond between the bone implant and the tissues that surround it,
and, when moving artificial body parts and medical instruments are in
question, in ensuring a low cell adhesion. Now, the only way in which
these problems can be solved is to develop new methods of materials
engineering such that permit producing surface layers with a precisely
specified microstructure, chemical and phase composition, surface
topography, hardness and residual stress state, prevent the release of
the material constituents into the surrounding tissues, and in addition
are characterized by a good resistance to frictional wear and corrosion
and, in consequence, by a good biocompatibility tailored according to a
given destination of the biomaterial.
The basic goal of the project is to develop technologies that permit
optimizing the properties of titanium alloys, both used at the present
and those being in the stage of development, that are intended to be
used for the fabrication of orthopedic implants, heart valves, backbone
stabilizers, bone screws and plates and medical instruments, by
employing new, even in the world-wide scale, methods of surface
engineering, such as glow discharge assisted carbonitriding and
nitriding combined with Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD), or with
autocatalytic deposition of nickel-phosphorus coatings. The project has
an innovative character because of the novel surface engineering
techniques employed, the new types of the surface layer produced, such
as composite layers of the Ti(C,N) + Ti2N + ΑTi(N)+hydroxyapatite, TiN + (Ti,Ni)3P + Ti3P + (Ti,Ni) or (Ti,Ni)3P + Ti3P
+ (Ti,Ni) types formed on the Ti6Al4V titanium alloy, the innovative
methods used for examining the layer structures, the improved
properties of the layers, and the possibility of controlling their
morphology. Another important advantage is that the layers can be
produced on parts of sophisticated shapes. The research goals of the
project will thus be concentrated on the fabrication of a new
generation of titanium-based biomaterials that combine the good
physical and mechanical properties of titanium and its alloys with the
properties, advantageous for the biochemical behavior of the implant,
of the surface layers with controlled biocompatibility and
biofunctionality. The project comprises a wide spectrum of research
tasks, beginning from the development of the technology of the surface
layers, through the examinations necessary to verify their
biocompatibility, and ending with the preparation of the fundamental
recommendations concerning the application of the layers.
The technologies developed during the realization of the project can be
applied for the fabrication of bone implants designed to operate in
contact with blood or with soft tissues, and for the production of
Controlled modification of metallic surface layers with carbon ions.
prof. S. Mitura, Technical University of Łódź
The aim of the project was to develop the technology of
deposition of thin carbon films which would fulfill special
requirements as the layers on medical implants made of Ti6A14V alloy.
Diamond is the most biocompatible material and because of this reason
it was used in the project as the basic material, which properties
investigated in earlier researches had shown its biocompatibility.
In this project the RF PCVD method will be improved, the resources of
control of biocompatibility of diamond will be extended and the
protective interlayer against metalosis in case of incidental damages
of diamond layer will be produced.
The improvement of RF PCVD method consist in application of complex
process of deposition: RF PCVD and MW PCVD which should enable better
rate of ionization of plasma without damage of control of autopotential
and temperature of surface and increase of the area of uniform plasma
composition which is important for phenomenon stability.
The second alternative of the improvement of RF PCVD method consist in
utilization of ceramic film for controlled profiling of surface
morphology from nano scale to micro scale.
and texture optimum parameters in respect to the biocompatibility and
mechanical properties of titanium –based semi-roducts produced by
deep-drawing with the final surface treatment
Prof. B. Major, Aleksander Krupkowski Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science
Interest in titanium and its alloys is connected with
their good mechanical properties joined with the corrosion resistance
and bio-compatibility which is the best among metallic materials. The
further increase of the bio-compatibility as well as mechanical
properties could be obtained by application of the suitable final
surface treatment. Good ductility of titanium and its alloys, despite
the hexagonal structure, makes possible fabrication of semi-products
with complicated shapes by application of chosen technologies of
The goal of the project is to elaborate a method of fabrication of
titanium-based semi-products with complicated shapes by application of
mechanical and hydro-mechanical deep-drawing with subsequent surface
treatment using glow discharge methods and laser technologies.
Beside the conventional method of deep-drawing, the hydro-mechanical
process will be applied, too. This last method is recently used in the
world to produce parts with complicated shapes. In this technological
process, the material is being formed into hollow bodies with the aid
of an additional fluid. The tension-pressure combination increases the
plastifying properties of the material to be deep-drawn and allows the
manufacture of complicated work-pieces from the metallic materials.
Further increase of physical and chemical parameters of titanium and
its alloys could be obtained by application of the respectively chosen
modern technology of surface engineering. It is planned to applied the
- glow discharge nitriding; fabrication of titanium nitride surface layer
- pulsed laser deposition; producing coatings on the basis of nitrides,
oxides and hydroxyapatite (HA) and diamont like carbon (DLC).
The research activity will be realised in the integrated net-work with co-operation of:
- Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science, Polish Academy of
Science in Cracow; complex structural and properties diagnostic
- Faculty of Non-Ferrous Metals, University of Mining and Metallurgy in
Cracow; mechanical and hydro-mechanical deep drawing
- Institute of Optoelectronic MUT in Warsaw; pulsed laser deposition
- Faculty of Materials Science Warsaw University of Technology in Warsaw; glow discharge technologies.
Semi-products for application as element of hip-joint and dental implants are planned to be fabricated.
Study on interaction of body fluids with artificial surfaces predicted for use in medical implant
prof. B. Walkowiak, Medical Academy in Łódź
The use of medical implants allows for improvement of
health condition of people suffering from different diseases. One of
the most difficult problem to solve is a proper selection of structural
materials and/or materials coating an implant. It is important to
reduce unfavourable reactions resulting from contact of body fluids
with the surfaces. It is generally accepted, that titanium and its
alloys are the best tolerated materials which introduce the lowest
amount of unfavourable changes in the body. But currently the most
promising coating layer, in respect to the biocompatibility, seems to
be carbon formed in very thin layers of diamond-like carbon (DLC). The
newest technologies in material engineering allow for production of
coatings in the form of nanocrystalline diamond (NCD), which posses
much better mechanical, chemical and tribological properties. The
technology for coating metal substrates with NCD layers was developed
in the Institute of Materials Sciences and Engineering of Technical
University of Lodz. This technology was already successfully used in
the bone surgery (screws and nails). At present this technology is
transferred into implants predicted for permanent contact with blood
(stents, heart valves).
The aim of the proposed project is estimation of phenomena taking place
at the surface of NCD layer coating medical steel, titanium alloys, and
other metallic materials, during contact with flowing blood. We will
estimate a susceptibility of the selected surfaces (layer of NCD
coating medical steel and for comparison surface modified by nitriding
titanium alloy) for deposition of plasma proteins, mainly fibrinogen,
and platelet adhesion. The separate aim is estimation of reactivity of
blood platelets after contact with the studied surfaces, and all the
above will allow us for estimation of thrombogenity of NCD layers. The
next aim of the project is estimation of electro-physical phenomena
occurring at the NCD surface during contact with body fluids.
Especially interesting is possibility to apply an electron processes,
occurring in the contact zone, for specific detection of polar chemical
compounds, what should bring a new biosensor with a high
Interaction of components of blood with the selected surfaces will be
studied with two techniques. The first one uses the SPR biosensors
working in BiaCore X system, and it allows for real time observation of
protein deposition and platelet adhesion onto the studied surface and
their identification and also quantitative analysis. The second one,
allowing for long time contact of blood with the studied surfaces,
leans on fluorescence or enzymatic immunostaining. Moreover, the
studied surfaces will be subjected to scanning electron microscope
(SEM) inspection. Platelet reactivity after contact with the studied
surfaces will be tested with routine aggregation and adhesion tests and
also by estimation of P-selectin at the platelet membrane. The
scheduled study will be carried out in research laboratories of the
Department of Molecular and Medical Biophysics (Medical University of
Lodz) and the Department of Biophysics Institute of Materials Science
and Engineering (Technical University of Lodz). Studies on electron
structure and properties of the surfaces are planed to be done in
laboratories of Institute of Microelectronics and Optoelectronics of
Warsaw Technical University.
The research task of the project has a multidisciplinary nature and is
an unique in the world scale. The importance of the project can be
underlined by establishment of the Excellence Centre „New
technologies for medical applications: studying and production of
carbon surfaces allowing for controllable bioactivity” where our
team is an important part of the Centre. Our team consists of
biophysicists, physicists, biologists and engineers specialised in
materials sciences and electronics.
Tribological researches of the new titanium biomaterials with superficial layers
prof. M.Gierzyńska Dolna, Technical University of Częstochowa
Owing to an insufficient state of tribological
researches, within the confines of the Project, the following aims are
expected to be executed:
1. Determination of tribological characteristics of titanium alloys exposed to the different kinds of surface treatment.
2. Testing of the amount and form of wear products occurring in the
frictional pairs: “head – acetabular cup”.
3. Identification and description of the wear mechanisms in the different tribological systems.
4. Working out the recommendation for the expected application of
titanium alloys, exposed to the surface treatment, in implantation.
Ti6Al4V dual-phase titanium alloy exposed to the following surface treatments:
- diffusion ion nitriding,
- coating with composite materials of different phases,
- coating with nanocrystalline layers of carbon on different sublayers
The surface treatment will be carried out in the Faculty of Materials
Science and Engineering at the Warsaw University of Technology,
according to the production technology by prof. T.Wierzchoń.
Tribological tests will be carried out on the simulators of hip and
knee joints which are at the Technical University of Częstochowa.
Determination of the tribological characteristics of titanium alloys
exposed to the different kinds of the surface treatment will contribute
to increase in using the alloys in implantation. It results from the
fact that the tribological processes play a dominant role in a loss of
the endoprostheses stability. A limiting of wear of the frictional
elements by surface treatment allow to increase in the implant
Metallic materials with modified surface layers
prof. H. Morawiec, Silesian University of Technology
The scientific aim of this project is to create a basis
for clinical applications in this country implants with shape memory
effect and superelasticity of NiTi alloys.
The fundamental range of research to be carried out in the frame of
this project is focused on the tailoring the structure of alloys to
achieve the needed properties to made clamps for bone fracture healing
and distractors for bone elongation using the shape recovery and
superelastic properties of the NiTi alloys.
In order to obtain the proper microstructure and parameters of the
implants it is necessary to choose the proper chemical compositions,
the appropriate thermo-mechanical treatment or ageing. This will serve
to work out models of clamps and springs for distractors designed for
surgical healing facial and cranial bones and clamps for spine surgery.
To ensure the best biocompatibility of these implants it is essential
to work out the optimal method of passivation and alternatively
covering the surfaces of these implants with diamond like carbon or
proper polymer (PTFE) layers. The evaluation of passivation quality
would based on the results of the potentiodynamic polarization testing.
The corrosion behavior of the implants would be tested in vitro in a
biological environmental solutions and the reaction on the implants
surface will be studied by SEM and Auger electron spectroscopy.
The results of this studies would be transferred to surgical clinics
which are include for cooperation as well as to some specialized in
implants production companies in order to undertake the production of
implants to make use of the shape memory and superelastic effects.
Developing of the stabilization system of bone graft in reconstructive and revised alloplasty of the hip joint
PhD Bogdan Stodolnik, Technical University of Częstochowa
The aim of the research task named: “Developing of
the stabilization system of bone graft in reconstructive and revised
alloplasty of the hip joint” is to develop effective method of
stabilization and implantation of human frozen bone graft with metal
implants. Implants in the form of rings, meshes and clamping rings made
of titanium sheet covered with bioceramics enable load transfer and
fast healing of the grafts in the event of secondary alloplasty of a
hip. Scope of the research covers:
- Developing of the construction and technological documentation of implants for osteosynthesis,
- Manufacture the instrumentation, tools and the pre-production batch of the implants,
- Developing and performing heat and surface treatment of the implants
batch with bioceramic coatings (ceramic hydroxy apatite, titania),
- Determining the biomechanical characteristic of the stabilizing implant-bone tissue system in laboratory conditions,
- Developing the surgical procedure technique of the bone grafts with use of stabilizing implants.
Developed method of stabilization with use of implants for bone grafts
is expected to be much cheaper and better then the methods used
presently abroad. It will allow creating domestic back-up in the form
of coherent osteosynthesis system in the reconstructive surgical
procedures of the hip joint for domestic orthopedic departments of
clinical hospitals purposes.
New ecological method of synthesis of poly (aspartic acid)
prof. J. Pielichowski, Cracow University of Technology
The aim of the project is to develop a new,
environmentally-safe method of synthesis of poly(aspartic acid) (PAA)
and its derivatives by thermal polymerization of aspartic or
aminomaleic acid under microwave irradiation. It is assumed that time
of polyreaction will be shortened in relation to classical methods of
PAA synthesis from tens to ca. one hour, as well as there will be no
need for using a catalyst - ortofosforic acid.
Polymerization method (in bulk or in chosen solvents) as well as
optimal conditions of the polymerization process will be the subject of
investigation. The obtained PAA shall be characterized towards its
chemical structure (NMR, UV, IR methods), molecular weight (GPC),
morphology (microscopy), thermal ((MT)DSC, TGA) and mechanical
properties. Studies on modification and cross-linking of PAA in order
to obtain products with high molecular weight - hydrogels, and
application tests of PAA-based macromolecular compounds in biomedical
materials, acting as (i) agents facilitating integration of tissue with
an implant, or (ii) improving mechanical stability of constructional
Obtained results will be applied to design an ecologically-friendly
technology of PAA synthesis in microwave reactor in an industrial
Developing of new methods of synthesis of biodegradable polymers using non-toxic initiators
prof. Z. Jedliński, Center of Polymer Chemistry, Polish Academy of Science
The novel multifunctional materials and new production
processes are based on the principles of nanotechnology and
nanosciences. These synthetic polymeric materials having the chemical
structure of natural polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) which is produced in the
cells of some microorganisms are completely nontoxic and biocompatible.
These synthetic polymers developed in the framework of this grant
proposal will be used in tissue engineering and also applied as drug
carriers in the therapy of some human diseases also in the cancer
therapy. These new materials will be patented in Poland and in foreign
New composite materials used in dentistry for permanent fillings
prof. dr hab. inż. K. Sikorski, Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Material Science and Engineering
Until quite lately, an amalgam was the main material
used for permanent fillings (PF) in dentistry. It was because of its
good mechanical characteristics (high compression strength, good wear
resistance) and good adhesion to the tooth tissue. However, its
disadvantages e.g. toxicity of mercury vapour, high thermal
conductivity, possibility of galvanic cell forming with the other
metals, as well as unsatisfied colour of fillings, motivate to
widespread investigations of new materials which could replace the
In the group of various materials used for fillings in dentistry the
composites seems the most perspective. In spite of intensive studies
and considerable development in the latest years, a few elaborated so
far composites can not compare with the amalgam. Besides their
polymerising contraction cause the forming of crevices on the
tooth-filling boundary, which promote of decay in these places.
The aim of this work is to develop new composites that better will
fulfil the requirements for permanent fillings. It is expected that
high strength and wear resistant material can be obtained by suitable
type and form of reinforcing particles and polymerising contraction
could be considerably diminished by appropriate combination of two
polymers self compensating volumetric changes during polymerisation.
The calculations of the residual stresses (performed by FEM simulation)
in the composite together with the quantitative analysis of the
microstructure and mechanical testing of the samples could allow to
design the optimum microstructure of the composite in question.
Various, advanced methods and techniques of material investigations
will be used to characterise the behaviour of the composites in the
conditions simulating the oral cavity conditions to which PF are
exposed to. The contact area between the composite filling and the
tooth tissue will be examined from the point of view of the metabolism
products promoting of decay. The obtained composites should meet ISO
standards. Their clinical studies are planned and the materials
developed will be commercialised ones in with pre-selected companies.
• Białystok Technical University, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Chair of Materials Technology
• Glass and Ceramics Institute
• Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Chemistry
• Warsaw University of Technology, Institute of Material Science and Mechanics
• Medical Academy of Warsaw, Department of Preservative Dentistry
Hard tissue reconstruction by means of tissue engineering – biomaterial scaffolds for autologous cell transplantation
dr hab. inż. M.
Lewandowska-Szumieł, Center of Research – Functional Materials,
Warsaw University of Technology (consortium of 10 units),
The idea of tissue reconstruction by means of tissue
engineering (TE) is extremely up-to-date. One of the TE method is
transplantation of patient own cells isolated from the health part of
the tissue, proliferated, differentiated in vitro, settled on 3
dimensional (3D) scaffold and stimulated to produce extracellular
In Poland the consortium consisting of 10 institutions has been
established in order to elaborate the optimal implantable constructions
of this type.
Specialists in material engineering representing all biomaterial fields
(polymers, ceramics, metals and composites) are represented in the
consortium and will work on carriers for cell transplantation.
Candidate scaffolds will be tested in vitro in the culture of human
cells harvested from bone, cartilage and marrow. Two radiation centers
experienced with sterilization of medical products are also involved in
the venture in order to resolve problems with sterilization of all the
products as well as to use radiation as a method of desirable
modifications of material properties. All scaffolds are to be designed
in strong collaboration with orthopedic and laryngological surgeons.
The main expectation is to work out TE constructions dedicated to the
specific clinical situations. Due to the certainly interdisciplinary
character of the consortium we do believe to be able to accomplish the
result faster then it could be achieved in many small bilateral
We are open for collaboration with partners engaged in the field of Tissue Engineering and/or Regenerative Medicine
Resorbable polymers and composites. Bioactive phosphate-siliceous materials (packet)
prof. J. Chłopek, AGH University of Science and Technology, Cracow
1. Developing of new methods of synthesis of biodegradable polymers using non-toxic initiators
Prof. M. Bero, Center of Polymer Chemistry, Polish Academy of Science
Trimethylen carbonate/glycolide, trimethylen
carbonate/lactide or trimethylen carbonate/ ?-caprolactone copolymers
are known as a good biocompatible and biodegredable material used in
manufacturing of temporary surgery implants (surgery screws, threads
and fabrics). Until now, produced copolymers unfortunately consist
strongly toxic stanous compounds, used as initiator in polymerization.
As it was proved in the presented papers, even very small
concentrations of these compounds have strongly toxic influence on
The aim of our project is to work out new methods of trimethylen
carbonate copolymers and 2,2 dimethyl trimethylen carbonate copolymers
synthesis with the use of non-toxic or low-toxic calcium, iron and
zirconnium compounds. Such choice of the kind of initiator makes it
possible to minimise the toxic influence of the metal compounds
remnants, which cannot be removed from the final product. First of all,
we will use acetylacetonates of those metals as initiators, as in the
methods of the oxycyclic monomers copolymerization we had previously
worked out they emerged very good initiators. Apart from the choice of
optimal initiators and copolymerization conditions, in the project we
plan to find the methods of chain microstructure analysis of the
obtained copolymers. This will enable us to define the connections
between the chain microstructure and the thermal and mechanical
properties of the obtained materials, as well as the influence of the
kind of initiator on the final chain microstructure.
Another essential task will be the synthesis of the glycolide/lactide
copolymers with the use of non-toxic initiator (Zr(acac)4) in a large
scale, according to a method previously worked out by our group for the
project (forming of applicable structural implants and the scaffolds).
The results of the project should lead to obtaining of a new method of
the synthesis of a lot biodegradable copolymers, which would have a
long degradation time, consisting carbonate groups in the chain, not
consisting the toxic stanous compounds. The appropriate choice of the
copolymer composition, as well as the kind of the initiator would make
it possible to set the mechanical and degradational properties of the
obtained materials, depending on the plans of their application. The
produced copolymers with interesting application properties will be
given to the Faculty of Material Science and Ceramics at the University
of Mining and Metallurgy for further investigation on forming the
biodegradable screws and other surgical elements. The
?-caprolactone/carbonates copolymers will probably be an interesting
material for forming flexible implants for application in neurosurgery
2. Modelling of scaffold microstructure for tissue regeneration using carbon fibrous materials and modified resorbable polymers
Prof. M. Błażewicz, AGH University of Science and Technology, Cracow
The aim of this project are the researches on the design
and elaboration of supporting materials for tissue engineering. It is
intended to investigate and to manufacture the materials with optimal
spatial architecture and properties allowing to culture in vitro and in
vivo the cells of hard and soft tissues. The synthetic substrates will
be used in the treatment and in the reconstruction of hard and soft
The project is directed to develop new approach in the treatment of
tissues by combining the tissue engineering methods with biomaterials
engineering. The concept is that some functions of organs or tissues
are difficult to be rebuilt by using single phases or constituents (ex.
metals) and such functions can be restored in part, by synthetic
composite phases. These composite phases can be designed and
manufactured using different biocompatible, non – metallic
constituents (carbon fibres, tissues, fabrics, polymers) allowing for
closer approach to the natural tissue and restoring better mechanical
functions whereas another tissue can be cultured within the three-
dimensional scaffold integrally bonded with composite phase.
The project deals with the two major problems. The first one is
fundamental in nature, and will deal with the modeling 3D scaffolds as
cell and tissue carriers based on biocompatible various forms of
surface- modified carbon fibers, whereas the second task will concern
to developing an implant for trachea reconstruction. The implant in the
form of flattened tube will be made from material constituting a
scaffold for epithelial growth cell, whilst the outer layer will act as
inert constructional phase with the anisotropic structural behavior.
Modelling of structure and usable properties of structural implants
using resorbable polymers modified with fibres and particles, suitable
for controlled bone adhesion.
prof. J. Chłopek, AGH University of Science and Technology, Cracow
The aim of the study is to elaborate technological basis
for obtaining structural implants of resorbable and inert polymers
modified with fibres and particles. To realize this, modeling of
composite’s microstructure for fulfilling particular
biomechanical function is required. Fundamental problem for practical
application is to estimate the relationship between mechanical
stability of composites and resorption time and kinetics of bone union.
Obtained results should allow to obtain polymer composites with
controlled mechanical and biological composites and on their basis
resorbable and biostable joints in the form of plates, screws, nails
and other shapes. The last stage of this task would be estimation of
their usefulness in vitro and in vivo studies.
4. Multifunctional ceramics on the basis of calcium phosphates
prof. A. Ślósarczyk, AGH University of Science and Technology, Cracow
Recently there has been considerable interest in the
development of new bioceramic materials which can be used as potential
multifunctional implants. In accordance with this trend of studies in
our research we would like to prepare and to evaluate the new calcium
phosphate based materials for bone substitution and local release of
the drugs. This concept of the ceramic carriers overcomes the
disadvantages of the other drug delivery systems.
Porous hydroxyapatite (HAP), whitlockite (TCP) or composite type
implants with HAP and TCP as well as apatite cements including the
incorporated drugs guarantee their sustained and slow release and a
high local concentration in a long period.
Calcium phosphate based multifunctional implants with hetero- or
homogenous profile thanks to their chemical and mineralogical
similarity to bone apatites have very good biocompatibility to host
tissues. After completion of drug release the implant is not removed
but should serve as a scaffold for new bone formation. This drug
delivery system may be an effective way used in the treatment of
osteitis, rheumatism, bone tumors and osteoporosis with high
The second aim of our work is to evaluate the interaction of different
type implants on the basis of calcium phosphates with human cells in in
vitro tests. The influence of the phase composition and microstructure
on the cells proliferation and differentiation will be studied. The
obtained results should be helpful in qualifying the ranges of
application of these materials in medicine. Problems regarding the
different bioactivity and biocompatibility of calcium phosphate based
materials will be emphasized.
generation of ceramic bioactive materials of higher bioactivity –
bioglasses and glass-ceramics produced by sol-gel method
prof. M. Łączka, AGH University of Science and Technology, Cracow
Bioactive glasses and glass-ceramics have great
potential as bone substitutes in dentistry and medicine. They have the
important property of bioactivity, permitting not only bonding to bone
surfaces but also stimulation of bone formation. Both of these
properties are clearly dependent on the material composition and
reactivity of the surface, but it has thus far not been possible to
identify the key parameters leading to bioactivity.
The project concerns the new generation of these biomaterials (glasses
and glass-ceramics) produced by chemical sol-gel method. Gel-derived
biomaterials are characterised by higher bioactivity, especially
concerning their effect on the faster reconstruction of living tissues.
We will try to determine the mechanism of the interaction between
gel-derived biomaterials and tissues as well as the kind of cell
response on material action. Examinations will be carried out in vitro
an in vivo conditions. The influence of various materials factors
(chemical and phase composition, surface state, development of surface
and other) on the behaviour of cells and tissue regeneration will be
6. Bioactive ceramic overlayers
prof. dr hab. inż. M. Handke, AGH University of Science and Technology, Cracow
The project task is development in the field of implant
technology connected with production of firm joint between implant and
biological tissue which rely on the application of bioactive ceramic
Preparation of new materials for the layers phosphate and
phosphate-silica based is expected, as well as an improvement in the
methods of preparation of phosphate or phosphate-carbonate materials
applied already in our laboratory.
Ceramic bioactive layers will be deposited onto metal, ceramic or
carbon implants using sol-gel, biomimetic and electrochemical
techniques. Best conditions of the layers deposition and their thermal
pretreatment will be establishhed. Interaction between the overlayers
and the substrates as well as estimation of their corrosive resistance
in synthetic body fluids „in vitro” will also be studied.
Biological activity of the overlayers by means of the growth of bone
cells on their sufrace will be evaluated.
It is expected that the bioactive ceramic overlayers formed according
to procedures developed in the Project allow producing the non-concrete
bonding between the implant and biologic neighborhood.
7. Composites with bioactive ceramic phases of natural and synthetic origin
prof. J. Chłopek, AGH University of Science and Technology, Cracow
The aim of the study is to elaborate the method of
obtaining hydroxyapatite from animal bones, without organic phase, the
method of obtaining sinters containing natural hydroxyapatite and
estimating the way of obtaining gradient carbon-ceramic composites with
different types of hydroxyapatites and bioglasses.
Structural analysis of natural and synthetic hydroxyapatites and
carbon-phosphate composites prepared by heat treatment will allow to
choose the most beneficial method of obtaining implants on the basis of
these materials characterized with good physico-chemical properties,
mainly their ability to fixate with bone tissue. Some in vitro research
will also be done to estimate the kinetics of bone apatite growth on
scaffolds made of these materials and to determine the level of cells
Elaborated implants will be applied in dentistry and veterinary medicine.